Detect 64 risk factor genes associated with neurocognitive disorders
An accurate, timely diagnosis of a nonreversible decline in mental function is crucial to ensure a personalized and data-driven treatment plan is provided to the patient. Early-stage support can help avoid unnecessary struggles and expenses associated with missed treatment opportunities.
Diax Labs offers our proprietary comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation panel, which examines 64 genes associated with an increased risk of developing neurocognitive disorders and detects both the diagnostic and risk factor genes for dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. While no single test exists to diagnose dementia, DAP testing is an important component in the diagnostic process. Additionally, DAP testing rules out medical conditions that mimic the memory loss symptoms associated with dementia.
Symptoms along with Family History:
As a result of faulty genes being passed to a child by their parents, Parkinson’s disease can run in families. Approximately 15% of people with Parkinson’s have a family history of this disorder. Familial cases of Parkinson's disease can be caused by mutations in the LRRK2, PARK7, PINK1, PRKN, MAPT, GBA or SNCA gene.
One type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease is known as autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, or early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD), which affects approximately 3-5% of all people with Alzheimer’s. What makes this type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease so unusual is that it is caused by a hereditary genetic mutation to one of three genes: PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP. Genes that increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease are APOE, TREM2 and NOTCH3.
Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. Protein deposits, called Lewy bodies, develop in nerve cells in the brain regions involved in thinking, memory and movement (motor control). While much research is underway, it is widely accepted that familial cases of Lewy-Body Dementia can be caused by mutations in the SNCA, APOE E4, or GBA gene.
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia for people under age 60. It represents a group of brain disorders caused by degeneration of the frontal and/or temporal lobes of the brain. FTD’s estimated prevalence in the United States is around 60,000 cases, and many in the medical community remain unfamiliar with it. FTD is frequently misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s, depression, Parkinson’s disease or a psychiatric condition. On average, it currently takes 3.6 years to get an accurate diagnosis. Up to 40% of patients have a positive family history with a diagnosis of dementia in at least one extra family member. Three major causal genes have been identified: MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72.
Approximately 5-10% of cases are due to genetic mutations and are inherited from a family member. If there are two or more family members with ALS, the disease is considered familial. There are an increasing number of gene mutations that have been identified both in familial and seemingly sporadic patients. The most commonly known ALS genes have been identified as: C9orf72, FUS, TARDBP, and SOD1.
Alzheimer’s and the African-American Population
|Alzheimer’s disease is more prevalent among African-Americans than non-Hispanic whites, with statistics ranging from 14-100% greater, making it an emerging health crisis and earning the name “The Silent Epidemic”||African-Americans have historically been diagnosed at a later stage of the disease, ultimately dampening the effectiveness of medications and treatments designed for early intervention||The number of African-Americans entering the age of risk will >double to 6.9 million over the next 3 decades|
Patients at risk for dementia share several common factors:
√ high blood pressure
√ high cholesterol
√ genetic etiology
√ APOE genotype